Select a year from the timeline below for information about the historical events of that period.

1913 1935 1940 1942 1944 1948
1912 1920 1933 1939 1941 1943 1945 1952

January 5, 1943
Hirabayashiís conviction for curfew violation reaffirmed by Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

January 28, 1943
WRA began processing the loyalty questionaire. U.S. Army officially activated the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed of the 100th Battalion from Hawaii and Japanese American volunteers from the mainland concentration camps.2 Nearly 10,000 Hawaiian Nisei volunteered for military service. Only 1,100 mainland prisoners volunteer.

February 3, 1943
Attorney General Francis Biddle began the establishment of prohibited zones forbidden to all enemy aliens. German, Italian, and Japanese aliens were ordered to leave San Francisco waterfront areas.

February 20, 1943
Seven months after it was filed, Mitsuye Endo's case was forwarded to the Supreme Court by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

June 9, 1943
California Governor Earl Warren signed prohibition of commercial fishing licenses from being given to alien Japanese.

June 21, 1943
Hirabayashi s and Yasui's convictions reaffirmed by the Supreme Court, but it refused to address the question of constitutionality raised in the Hirabayahsi case.

July 31, 1943
WRA designated Tule Lake as a "segregation camp."

The 100th Infantry Battalion fought in North Africa and Italy, joining the 442nd Regimental Combat Team in June 1944. They fought in Italy, France, and Germany, rescued the "Lost Battalion," and their 522nd Field Artillery Battalion liberated the survivors at the Dachau death camp. Of the 10,000 volunteers for the all-American combat unit, 1200 came from mainland U.S. concentration camps and the rest from Hawaii, where Executive Order 9066 did not apply.

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